The Ottoman Empire by Alexa Cole and Sam Bacchiocchi

Map:
Ottoman Empire, 1683-1800
Ottoman Empire, 1683-1800

Map of the Ottoman Empire from 1683- 1800. Includes modern day Turkey, much of Greece, Cyprus, as well as major cities such as Jerusalem, Damascus, and Bahdad.
World History: The Modern Era, s.v. "Ottoman Empire, 1683-1800," Map, accessed November 2, 2012. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/.

Economic Backdrop


The Ottoman economy was centered around the usage of military expansion and fiscalism. Fiscalism was an economical practice based on the use of taxation and spending to influence the economy.[1] Ottoman military expansion was great from 1458 to 1493, as they conquered Athens, Bosnia, Italy, Balkins and central Europe, Hungary, Croatia, and most notably Constantinople.[2] Fiscalism was shown in the Ottoman in the form of taxation. Taxation was not applied uniformly throughout the empire. Muslims were taxed with tithes, which were one tenth of their annual earnings.[3] Non-Muslim paid a poll tax, which was levied on adults, without reference to their income or resources.[4] Trading in Ottoman was important as well. Istanbul and Bursa, cities in the empire, were a few of the great trade centers of the world. Commonly traded goods included, "silk and other cloths, musk, rhubarb, porcelain from China, spices, and dysestuffs."[5]

Footnotes:
1. "Fiscalist" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/fiscalist.html
2. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 419-421
3. "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm
4. "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm
5. "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm

Politics:

During the creation of Ottoman law, one issue that was faced was how to achieve cultural unity. As the empire continued to grow and become more and more influenced by other cultures, it seemed as though sharia, holy law, would not be able to exist as the secular world continues to grow.[1] In order to overcome this dilemma the ottoman created a system of administrative law. The conquerer of Constantinople, Mehmed II began to make reforms by recruiting young men as bureaucrates and military men.[2] This was so they could be directly loyal to the sultan. His successor, Suleiman continued the reform by composing a code of law. The legal code discussed the rights and duties of commonors, as well as how Muslims were to treat and relate to non- Muslims.[3] The code was very important in helping to bridge gaps between different culutres as well as creating both an administrative and religious legal system.

Footnotes:
1. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
2. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
3. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528

Timeline:


[[rss url="http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-ottoman-empire" link="true" description="true" number="10" date="true" author="true" enclosure="true"]]

Make sure to watch video at the end of the timeline of the decline and abolishing of the Ottoman Empire

Footnotes:
1. "Flag of Italy" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Italy
2. "Flag of Bosnia" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Bosnia+and+Herzegovina
3. "Flag of Hungary" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Hungary
4. "Flag of Croatia" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Croatia
5. "Suleymaniye Mosque" http://www.GreatBuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/Suyleman_Mosque.html/cid1723343.html
6. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 420
7. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 422
8. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 420
9. "Tulip Period," http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
10. "The Fall of the Ottoman Empire" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3RH8kkSocA
11. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 418
12. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 421


Aspects of Culture

Social Backdrop:

The Ottoman empire was one of the most diverse empires of its time. It consisted of many groups of people and several religions were practiced. Sunni Muslim was the religion of the state and among the most popular of the Ottoman people, however Jews, Christians, and other Muslims did exist in the empire.[1] The Millet system was put into place in the empire, with the Muslim millets being the most superior.[2] As early as the reign of Mehmed II Greeks and Jews were granted the right to settle and live within the empire.[3] Another part of Ottoman society was slavery. Even as Europeans began to abolish slavery, the Ottoman continued it and slavery of women was the most common in the empire.[4] Language was another unique backdrop of Ottoman society. Although Turksih Ottoman was the general and primary language, Arabic was also common among people in the eastern half of the empire.[4]

Footnotes:
1. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 423
2. World History: The Modern Era, s.v. "millet system," accessed November 4, 2012. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/.
3. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 423
4. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 423

Education
A, "sophisticated educational system was crucial,"[1] in the success of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans taught through three different educational systems. These educational systems allowed for "three streams of talent- civil and military bureaucrats, Ulama, and Sufi Masters."[2] Students passed through so called "elementary schools where they learned reading, writing, and numbers."[3] They later passes through high schools called, "Madrasas, where they learned about law, religious sciences, the Quran, and regular sciences."[4] These classes allowed students to become Ulama and bureaucrats. Another set of schools, called the, "tekkes, taught the devotional strategies and religious knowledge for students to enter Sufi orders."[5] Ottomans placed much value on the importance of education and advancements in knowledge. This, "was evident in the saying that, "an hour of learning was worth more than a year of prayer."[6]

Footnotes:
1. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
2. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
3. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
4. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
5. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
6. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 529

Artistic Innovations:

Art was enhanced substantially in the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Suleiman I. The most common styles developed during this time were cermaics, weaving, woodwork, painting, as well as engraving.[1] Carpet weaving was also very popular and the Ushak medallion style was used to create works of weaving.[2] The technique of balanced Islamic geometric patterns with art and using art to represent natural and the natural world, was quite significant during this era.[3] During the Tulip Period, the Ottomans celebrated their prosperity by using the bold colors of the tulip to symbolize the sultans. By the 18th century, tulip designs were appearing on tiles, fabrics, and on architecture.[4]

Footnotes:
1. World History: The Modern Era,s.v. "Middle Eastern art", accessed November 2, 2012. http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/.
2. World History: The Modern Era,s.v. "Middle Eastern art", accessed November 2, 2012. http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/.
3. World History: The Modern Era,s.v. "Middle Eastern art", accessed November 2, 2012. http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/.
4. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 529
ottoman tile.jpg
Ottoman Tile Panal created in the 16th century in Iznik.
http://library.artstor.org/library/iv2.html?parent=true

ottoman carpet.jpg
Ottoman Carpet made in the 19th century in Turkey.
http://library.artstor.org/library/iv2.html?parent=true

ottoman dish.jpg
Islamic style dish made in the 16th century in Iznik, examplifying Ottoman ceramics.
http://library.artstor.org/library/iv2.html?parent=true

ottoman carpet 2.jpg
Medallion carpet, 16th century, made in Ushak.
http://library.artstor.org/library/iv2.html?parent=true

ottoman woodwork.jpg
Mausoleum of Shehzade Mehmed, carved woodwork made in Istanbul.
http://library.artstor.org/library/iv2.html?parent=true

ottoman woodwork 2.jpg
Selimye Mosque woodwork created in Edirn, Turkey.
http://library.artstor.org/library/iv2.html?parent=true


Classic literary text


Gazel [1]

My pain for thee balm in my sight resembles

Thy face's beam the clear moonlight resembles.

Thy black hair spread across they cheeks, the roses

O Liege, the garden's basil quite resembles.

Beside thy lip oped wide its mouth, the rosebud;

For shame it blushed, it blood outright resembles.

Thy mouth, a casket fair of pearls and rubies,

Thy teeth, pearls, thy lip coral bright resembles.

Their diver I, each morning and each even;

My weeping, Liege, the ocean's might resembles.

Lest he seduce thee, this my dread and terror

That rival who Iblis in spite resembles.

Around the taper bright, thy cheek, Muhibbi

Turns and the moth in his sad plight resembles.



-In Honor of Suleiman the Magnificent



Website that shows art detail around poem and some background information about the poem:

http://www.qantara-med.org/qantara4/public/show_document.php?do_id=1195&lang=en



Footnotes:

1. "Ottoman Turks' Poetry" http://www.ottomansouvenir.com/General/Turkish_Poetry.htm


Religion


The Ottomans view of religion was based off the Sunni view of Islam. They claimed themselves to be the, "Shadow of God." Reformers of the religion like Muhammad Ibn abd al-Wahhab who wanted a stricter view of the religion[1] posed threats, but the Ottomans always ruled with relgious tolerance. This is shown by their use of the "Millet System, which gave minority religious, ethnic, and geographical communities a limited amount of power to regulate their own affairs - under the overall supremacy of the Ottoman administration."[2] The most populated millet communities included those were, "Orthodox Christian, Armenian Christian, and Jewish."[3] All millets paid taxes to the government, but some were, "exempted because they were seen to be performing services of value to the state."[4] In the Ottoman Empire religion and government were tied closely together.

Footnotes:
1. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 602
2. "Ottoman Empire" http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml, Last Modified: 9-4-2009
3. "Ottoman Empire" http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml, Last Modified: 9-4-2009
4. "Ottoman Empire" http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml, Last Modified: 9-4-2009

Architecture:

Beginning with the Ottomans' earliest era, architecture has always been used it respresent the power and formidable force that the empie was. Examples of some of the empire's greatest architectual achievements are the Suleymaiye Mosque, Topkapi Palace and Mehmedd Pasa Sokolovic Bridge.


Suleymaniye mosque.jpg
The Suleymaiye Mosque was built by the Sultan Suleiman in order to symbolize his achievements.The Mosque was designed by Sinan and the goal for the design was to make it the focal point of the city.[1]

Topkapi-Palace.jpg
Topkapi Palace was built to reflect the Ottomans' values of governance, religion, education, as well as the Sultans' family traditions.The palace soon became a place for scholars to learn and share knowledge about religion, science, and medicine.[2]
Ottoman bridge.jpg
Mehmed Pasa Sokolovic Bridge was created by Sinan as well and was built over the Drina River.Its design consist of classics Ottoman architecture with its details of arches and ramps.[3]


Footnotes:
1. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 421
2. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 422
3. World History: The Modern Era,s.v. "Middle Eastern art", accessed November 2, 2012. http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/.

Observations about what we have learned.

We learned from this project the cultural achievements of the Ottomans. They had an extensive educational system, and art and architecture influenced the culture as a whole. The Suleymaniye Mosque was not only a major religious site, but also it was the center of government and education in the empire. We were also surprised to discover the importance of the tulip in the early 18th century, and how it could be found in art, on buildings and in the Topkapi Palace itself.


Bibliography of Economic Backdrop, Timeline, Education, Classic Literary Texts, and Religion by Sam Bacchiocchi


"Fiscalist" __http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/fiscalist.html__

Global World Travel "Flag of Italy" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Italy__

Global World Travel "Flag of Bosnia" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Bosnia+and+Herzegovina__

Global World Travel "Flag of Hungary" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Hungary__

Global World Travel "Flag of Croatia" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Croatia__

Great Buildings "Suleymaniye Mosque" __http://www.GreatBuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/Suyleman_Mosque.html/cid1723343.html__

OttomanEmpire.info "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" __http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm__

"Ottoman Turks' Poetry" Ottoman Souvenir http://www.ottomansouvenir.com/General/Turkish_Poetry.htm#Gazel6 from: Charles F. Horne, ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, (New York: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, 1917), Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, pp. 259-325.

Religions "Ottoman Empire" __http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml__, Last Modified: 9-4-2009

Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Stephen Kotkin, Suzanne Marchand, Gyan Prakash, and Michael Tsin Worlds Together Worlds Apart,(New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 418-422, 528, 529, 602

"The Fall of the Ottoman Empire" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3RH8kkSocA

World History: The Modern Era, s.v. "Tulip Period," accessed November 4, 2012. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/.
Bibliography of Map, Politics, Social Backdrop, Art and Arcitecture by Alexa Cole
http://library.artstor.org/library/iv2.html?parent=true


Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Stephen Kotkin, Suzanne Marchand, Gyan Prakash, and Michael Tsin Worlds Together Worlds Apart,(New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 421, 422, 423, 528, 529.

World History: The Modern Era,s.v. "Middle Eastern art", accessed November 2, 2012. http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/.

World History: The Modern Era, s.v. "millet system," accessed November 4, 2012. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/.

World History: The Modern Era, s.v. "Ottoman Empire, 1683-1800," Map, accessed November 2, 2012. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/.


Resources to try:

Hayden Library Portal You can also find this link by going to Podium and finding the Hayden Library Link on the right side of the page. ARTSTOR - a GIANT repository of examples of art: searchable by time, location, and type. Note that most of them have descriptions which are helpful for composing summaries. It is found in the DATABASES tab.
360 virtual tours This link takes you to the Ottoman Empire. By searching for 360 tour and the name of a specific site you can often find an online tour. Some can be embedded.
Saudi Aramco World a great source for cultural resources for the Islamic World and parts of Africa.
Internet Source Books At the top there is a directory that will move you to other regions. Helpful for finding primary source accounts. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History at the Met Provides samples, essays that explain the periods and production techniques. Note the thematic categories in the bottom right of the introductory page.
British Museum World History Timeline Set to open in Asia, you can move about the globe.
British Museum Cultures Gives an overview. The top right of each page gives a selection of items from the museum.
British Library contains descriptions of and digitized images of cultural artifacts and texts.
Louvre - in English
Asia for Educators Great for East Asia resources
Search of PBS.org will also yield a number of resources on Japan, India, etc.
You can also use Google Books, Google Scholar, and Advanced Search to get the specific information you need. DO NOT perform a general search....

Grading:

F: Follows directions but steals material. Both footnotes (or endnotes) and a bibliography (in Chicago Manual of Style format) are expected. You can change text using the T button to create superscript numbers.1 In short, treat the project like writing a research paper. There should be a caption under each picture that gives the name, originator, date, and source. Paragraphs and descriptions should be your writing, not another author's work pasted in with a few key words changed using the thesaurus function in Word. D: Follows directions, cites sources, doesn't complete the project, is riddled with errors. It is evident that the team failed to use its time well. C: Follows directions. Pastes the correct items into the correct places but takes no care in explaining the choices made. Uses less than six sources. Text is SLOPPY - no proofing! B: Follows directions. Describes the choices made using complete sentences and clear language. Labels items correctly. Cites sources. Organizes the visuals. The paragraphs are clearly written, but general in nature. A: Does B - but, shows some extra care, thought and research. An A has a "Wow" factor. This does not mean more color or flying moneys. It means that the content selected does a great job TEACHING about the culture of the in that region in that time period.