Economic Backdrop

The Ottoman economy was centered around the usage of military expansion and fiscalism. Fiscalism was an economical practice based on the use of taxation and spending to influence the economy.[1] Ottoman military expansion was great from 1458 to 1493, as they conquered Athens, Bosnia, Italy, Balkins and central Europe, Hungary, Croatia, and most notably Constantinople.[2] Fiscalism was shown in the Ottoman in the form of taxation. Taxation was not applied uniformly throughout the empire. Muslims were taxed with tithes, which were one tenth of their annual earnings.[3] Non-Muslim paid a poll tax, which was levied on adults, without reference to their income or resources.[4] Trading in Ottoman was important as well. Istanbul and Bursa, cities in the empire, were a few of the great trade centers of the world. Commonly traded goods included, "silk and other cloths, musk, rhubarb, porcelain from China, spices, and dysestuffs."[5]

Footnotes:
1. "Fiscalist" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/fiscalist.html
2. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 419-421
3. "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm
4. "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm
5. "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm

Timeline

[[rss url="http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-ottoman-empire" link="true" description="true" number="10" date="true" author="true" enclosure="true"]]

Make sure to watch video at the end of the timeline of the decline and abolishing of the Ottoman Empire

Footnotes:
1. "Flag of Italy" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Italy
2. "Flag of Bosnia" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Bosnia+and+Herzegovina
3. "Flag of Hungary" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Hungary
4. "Flag of Croatia" http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Croatia
5. "Suleymaniye Mosque" http://www.GreatBuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/Suyleman_Mosque.html/cid1723343.html
6. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 420
7. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 422
8. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 420
9. "Tulip Period," http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
10. "The Fall of the Ottoman Empire" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3RH8kkSocA
11. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 418
12. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 421








Education

A, "sophisticated educational system was crucial,"[1] in the success of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans taught through three different educational system. These educational systems allowed for "three streams of talent- civil and military bureaucrats, Ulama, and Sufi Masters."[2] Students passed through so called "elementary schools where they learned reading, writing, and numbers."[3] They later passes through high schools called, "Madrasas, where they learned about law, religious sciences, the Quran, and regular sciences."[4] These classes allowed students to become Ulama and bureaucrats. Another set of schools, called the, "tekkes, taught the devotional strategies and religious knowledge for students to enter Sufi orders."[5] Ottomans placed much value on the importance of education and advancements in knowledge. This, "was evident in the saying that, "an hour of learning was worth more than a year of prayer."[6]

Footnotes:
1. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
2. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
3. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
4. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
5. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 528
6. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 529

Classic literary texts

Gazel [1]
My pain for thee balm in my sight resembles
Thy face's beam the clear moonlight resembles.
Thy black hair spread across they cheeks, the roses
O Liege, the garden's basil quite resembles.
Beside thy lip oped wide its mouth, the rosebud;
For shame it blushed, it blood outright resembles.
Thy mouth, a casket fair of pearls and rubies,
Thy teeth, pearls, thy lip coral bright resembles.
Their diver I, each morning and each even;
My weeping, Liege, the ocean's might resembles.
Lest he seduce thee, this my dread and terror
That rival who Iblis in spite resembles.
Around the taper bright, thy cheek, Muhibbi
Turns and the moth in his sad plight resembles.

-In Honor of Suleiman the Magnificent

Website that shows art detail around poem and some background information about the poem:
http://www.qantara-med.org/qantara4/public/show_document.php?do_id=1195&lang=en

Footnotes:
1. "Ottoman Turks' Poetry" http://www.ottomansouvenir.com/General/Turkish_Poetry.htm

Religion

The Ottomans view of religion was based off the Sunni view of Islam. They claimed themselves to be the, "Shadow of God." Reformers of the religion like Muhammad Ibn abd al-Wahhab who wanted a stricter view of the religion[1] posed threats, but the Ottomans always ruled with relgious tolerance. This is shown by their use of the "Millet System, which gave minority religious, ethnic, and geographical communities a limited amount of power to regulate their own affairs - under the overall supremacy of the Ottoman administration."[2] The most populated millet communities included those were, "Orthodox Christian, Armenian Christian, and Jewish."[3] All millets paid taxes to the government, but some were, "exempted because they were seen to be performing services of value to the state."[4] In the Ottoman Empire religion and government were tied closely together.

Footnotes:
1. Robert Tignor, Worlds Together Worlds Apart, (New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 602
2. "Ottoman Empire" http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml, Last Modified: 9-4-2009
3. "Ottoman Empire" http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml, Last Modified: 9-4-2009
4. "Ottoman Empire" http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml, Last Modified: 9-4-2009

Bibliography of Economic Backdrop, Timeline, Education, Classic Literary Texts, and Religion by Sam Bacchiocchi

"Fiscalist" __http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/fiscalist.html__

Global World Travel "Flag of Italy" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Italy__

Global World Travel "Flag of Bosnia" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Bosnia+and+Herzegovina__

Global World Travel "Flag of Hungary" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Hungary__

Global World Travel "Flag of Croatia" __http://www.olstars.com/en/flag/Croatia__

Great Buildings "Suleymaniye Mosque" __http://www.GreatBuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/Suyleman_Mosque.html/cid1723343.html__

OttomanEmpire.info "The Economy of the Ottoman Empire" __http://ottomanempire.info/economy.htm__

"Ottoman Turks' Poetry" Ottoman Souvenir http://www.ottomansouvenir.com/General/Turkish_Poetry.htm#Gazel6 from: Charles F. Horne, ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, (New York: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, 1917), Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, pp. 259-325.

Religions "Ottoman Empire" __http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml__, Last Modified: 9-4-2009

Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Stephen Kotkin, Suzanne Marchand, Gyan Prakash, and Michael Tsin Worlds Together Worlds Apart,(New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc: 2011) 418-422, 528, 529, 602

"The Fall of the Ottoman Empire" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3RH8kkSocA

World History: The Modern Era, s.v. "Tulip Period," accessed November 4, 2012. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/.